Magento Framework

Overview

The Magento Framework controls how application components interact, including request flow, routing, indexing, caching, and exception handling. It provides services that reduce the effort of creating modules that contain business logic, contributing to the goal of both making Magento code more modular as well as decreasing dependencies.

This primarily PHP software component is organized into logical groups called libraries, which all modules can call. Most of the framework code sits under the domain layer or encloses the presentation, service, and domain layers. The framework contains no business logic. (Although the Magento Framework does not contain resource models, it does contain a library of code to help implement a resource model.)

Don't confuse the Magento framework with the Zend web application framework that ships with Magento.

You should never modify Framework files, although if you are extending Magento, you must know how to call Framework libraries. Modules you create will typically inherit from classes and interfaces defined in the Framework directories.  

Responsibilities

The Magento framework provides libraries that help reduce the effort of creating modules that contain business logic.

The framework is responsible for operations that are useful for potentially all modules, including:

  • handling HTTP protocols

  • interacting with the database and filesystem

  • rendering content

Organization

Here is the Magento framework folder structure:

Lib/
    ../Internal
        ../Magento
            ../Framework
 
  • /lib/internal contains some non-PHP as well as PHP components. Non-PHP framework libraries includes JavaScript and LESS/CSS.

  • /lib/internal/Magento/Framework contains only PHP code. These are libraries of code plus the application entry point that routes requests to modules (that in turn call the framework libraries). For example, libraries in the framework help implement a resource model (base classes and interfaces to inherit from) but not the resource models themselves. Certain libraries also support CSS rendering.

  • /lib/web contains JavaScript and CSS/LESS files. These files reside under web and not internal because they are accessible from a web browser, while the PHP code under internal is not. (Any code that a web browser must access should be under web, while everything else under internal.)

The lib/internal/Magento/Framework directory maps to the Magento\Framework namespace.

Highlights of Magento Framework

The Magento Framework (lib/internal/Magento/Framework/) provides a robust range of functionality. If you are an extension developer, you may be interested in this subset of Framework namespaces.

Namespace Purpose
Magento\Framework\Object Provides standard functionality for storing and retrieving data through magic methods. This is the base class for many Magento classes.
Magento\Framework\Object\Model Contains base Model classes that almost all Magento Model classes extend from.
Magento\Framework\Object\AbstractModel
Magento\Framework\Object\AbstractResource
Magento\Framework\Object\Controller Contains classes to help return different types of results (for example, JSON and redirects).
Magento\Framework\Object\View Contains code to render pages and layouts.
Magento\Framework\Object\Data Contains additional classes that handle forms.
Magento\Framework\Object\URL Contains code to look up other pages in Magento.

Other namespaces under Magento\Framework that will interest extension developers:

Namespace Purpose
Magento\Framework\ObjectManager Used to provide dependency injection.
Magento\Framework\App Contains framework code that has knowledge about the Magento application. This code bootstraps the application and reads in the initial configuration. It also contains the entry point to the command line tools, the web application, and the cron job. And finally, it routes requests while providing the deployment context (such as reading in the configuration for the database configuration, languages, caching systems).
Magento\Framework\Api Contains base classes for advanced functionality of extendable objects through the system (that is, objects that can be extended to add new data through Magento Marketplace extensions).
Magento\Framework\Config Contains the generic configuration reader. Each config file has its own specialized reader extending these classes.
Magento\Framework\Filesystem Contains classes that handle reading from and writing to the file system.
Magento\Framework\HTTP\PhpEnvironment
Magento\Framework\Session
Magento\Framework\Stdlib\Cookie Code to handle the HTTP request/responses as well as session/cookies is found here.
Magento\Framework\Exception Contains the basic exceptions that are thrown throughout the Magento codebase.
Magento\Framework\Event Contains the code that publishes synchronous events and that handles observers for any Magento event is handled here.
Magento\Framework\Validator Contains the code that validates data (currencies, not empty) and that handles observers for any Magento event.