Installation quick reference (tutorial)

We know it’s challenging to install the Magento software. We’d like to help you by simplifying the process as much as possible.

This topic assumes:

  • You have your own Magento server (you’re not using a shared hosting provider).
  • You’re starting the installation using composer create-project, which enables you to get the most recent Magento software and to add your own customizations to it, if desired.
  • Everything is installed on one host (database, web server, and so on).
  • The host you’re installing on is either Ubuntu or CentOS.

    (You can use the same instructions to install on other UNIX distributions like RedHat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), or Debian, but these instructions aren’t for Mac or Windows.)

  • Your host’s IP address is 192.0.2.5
  • You’re installing to the magento2 subdirectory under your web server’s docroot (full path is /var/www/html/magento2)

    You can optionally set up static routing or a virtual host to install to a host name instead of an IP but that’s beyond the scope of this topic.

We’ve broken the installation process into three main parts: getting started, installing, and post-installation. We hope that what follows helps you; if you’d like to suggest improvements, click Edit this page on GitHub at the top of this page and let us know.

Precondition: How advanced are you?

Do you know what a “terminal” application is? Do you know what operating system your server runs? Do you know what Apache is?

If not, see the Installation overview.

Installation part 1: Getting started

  1. See the system requirements.
  2. If your system lacks any requirements, see the prerequisites documentation:

  3. Just as importantly, set up the Magento file system owner on the server.
  4. Switch to the Magento file system owner.

Get the Magento software

When all prerequisites have been met, get the Magento software using Composer as follows:

cd <web server docroot directory>
composer create-project --repository-url=https://repo.magento.com/ magento/project-community-edition magento2

You’re required to authenticate; see Get your authentication keys for details. This downloads Magento code only; it doesn’t install the software for you.

Alternatively, you can also download a Magento software archive.

Set pre-installation file system ownership and permissions

This topic discusses how to set read-write permissions for the web server group before you install the Magento software. This is necessary so the Setup Wizard or command line can write files to the Magento file system.

The procedure you use is different, depending on whether you use shared hosting and have one user or if you use a private server and have two users.

If you're using a Magento version earlier than 2.0.6, see Appendix—Magento file system ownership and appendix (legacy) instead.

Set permissions for shared hosting (one user)

This section discusses how to set pre-installation permissions if you log in to the Magento server as the same user that also runs the web server. This type of setup is common in shared hosting environments.

To set ownership and permissions for a one-user system:

To set permissions before you install the Magento software:

  1. Log in to your Magento server.
  2. Use a file manager application provided by your shared hosting provider to verify write permissions are set on the following directories:

    • vendor (Composer or compressed archive installation)
    • app/etc
    • pub/static
    • var
    • Any other static resources
  3. If you have command-line access, enter the following commands in the order shown:

    cd <your Magento install dir>
    find var vendor pub/static pub/media app/etc -type f -exec chmod u+w {} \;
    find var vendor pub/static pub/media app/etc -type d -exec chmod u+w {} \;
    chmod u+x bin/magento
    

    To optionally enter all commands on one line, enter the following assuming Magento is installed in /var/www/html/magento2:

    cd /var/www/html/magento2 && find var vendor pub/static pub/media app/etc -type f -exec chmod u+w {} \; && find var vendor pub/static pub/media app/etc -type d -exec chmod u+w {} \; && chmod u+x bin/magento
    
  4. If you haven’t done so already, get the Magento software in one of the following ways:

  5. After you have set file system ownership and permissions, continue with any of the following:

To further restrict permissions after installing the Magento software, you configure a Magento umask.

Set ownership and permissions for two users

This section discusses how to set ownership and permissions for your own server or a private hosting setup. In this type of setup, you typically cannot log in as, or switch to, the web server user. You typically log in as one user and run the web server as a different user.

To set ownership and permissions for a two-user system:

Complete the following tasks in the order shown:

About the shared group

To enable the web server to write files and directories in the Magento file system but to also maintain ownership by the Magento file system owner, both users must be in the same group. This is necessary so both users can share access to Magento files (including files created using the Magento Admin or other web-based utilities).

This section discusses how to create a new Magento file system owner and put that user in the web server’s group. You can use an existing user account if you wish; we recommend the user have a strong password for security reasons.

Step 1: Create the Magento file system owner and give the user a strong password

This section discusses how to create the Magento file system owner. (Magento file system owner is another term for the command-line user.)

To create a user on CentOS or Ubuntu, enter the following command as a user with root privileges:

adduser <username>

To give the user a password, enter the following command as a user with root privileges:

passwd <username>

Follow the prompts on your screen to create a password for the user.

If you don't have root privileges on your Magento server, you can use another local user account. Make sure the user has a strong password and continue with Put the Magento file system owner in the web server group.

For example, to create a user named magento_user and give the user a password, enter:

sudo adduser magento_user
sudo passwd magento_user

Because the point of creating this user is to provide added security, make sure you create a strong password.

Step 2: Find the web server user’s group

To find the web server user’s group:

  • CentOS: egrep -i '^user|^group' /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

    Typically, the user and group name are both apache

  • Ubuntu: ps aux | grep apache to find the apache user, then groups <apache user> to find the group

    Typically, the user name and the group name are both www-data

Step 3: Put the Magento file system owner in the web server’s group

To put the Magento file system owner in the web server’s primary group (assuming the typical Apache group name for CentOS and Ubuntu), enter the following command as a user with root privileges:

  • CentOS: usermod -g apache <username>
  • Ubuntu: usermod -g www-data <username>

For example, to add the user magento_user to the apache primary group on CentOS:

usermod -g apache magento_user

To confirm your Magento user is a member of the web server group, enter the following command:

groups <user name>

A sample result follows:

magento_user : apache

To complete the task, restart the web server:

  • Ubuntu: service apache2 restart
  • CentOS: service httpd restart

Step 4: Get the Magento software

If you haven’t done so already, get the Magento software in one of the following ways:

Step 5: Set ownership and permissions for the shared group

To set ownership and permissions before you install the Magento software:

  1. Log in to your Magento server as, or switch to, the Magento file system owner.
  2. Enter the following commands in the order shown:

    cd <your Magento install dir>
    find var vendor pub/static pub/media app/etc -type f -exec chmod g+w {} \;
    find var vendor pub/static pub/media app/etc -type d -exec chmod g+ws {} \;
    chown -R :<web server group> .
    chmod u+x bin/magento
    

To optionally enter all commands on one line, enter the following assuming Magento is installed in /var/www/html/magento2 and the web server group name is apache:

cd /var/www/html/magento2 && find var vendor pub/static pub/media app/etc -type f -exec chmod g+w {} \; && find var vendor pub/static pub/media app/etc -type d -exec chmod g+ws {} \; && chown -R :apache . && chmod u+x bin/magento

In the event file system permissions are set improperly and can’t be changed by the Magento file system owner, you can enter the command as a user with root privileges:

cd /var/www/html/magento2 && sudo find var vendor pub/static pub/media app/etc -type f -exec chmod g+w {} \; && sudo find var vendor pub/static pub/media app/etc -type d -exec chmod g+ws {} \; && sudo chown -R :apache . && sudo chmod u+x bin/magento

Next step

After you have set file system ownership and permissions, continue with any of the following:

Switch to the Magento file system owner

After you’ve performed the other tasks in this topic, enter one of the following commands to switch to that user:

  • Ubuntu: su <username>
  • CentOS: su - <username>

For example,

su magento_user

Installation part 2: Installing the Magento software

You can choose to install the Magento software using either a web-based Setup Wizard or using the command line.

Command line installation

Click to view the command-line installation

The following example shows how to install using the command line with the following options:

  • The Magento software is installed in the /var/www/html/magento2 directory, which means your storefront URL is http://192.0.2.5/magento2/

  • The database server is on the same host as the web server.

    The database name is magento, and the user name and password are both magento

  • Uses server rewrites

  • The Magento administrator has the following properties:

    • First and last name are Magento User
    • User name is admin and the password is admin123
    • E-mail address is user@example.com
  • Default language is en_US (U.S. English)
  • Default currency is U.S. dollars
  • Default time zone is U.S. Central (America/Chicago)

    php /var/www/html/magento2/bin/magento setup:install --base-url=http://192.0.2.5/magento2/ \
    --db-host=localhost --db-name=magento --db-user=magento --db-password=magento \
    --admin-firstname=Magento --admin-lastname=User --admin-email=user@example.com \
    --admin-user=admin --admin-password=admin123 --language=en_US \
    --currency=USD --timezone=America/Chicago --use-rewrites=1
    

Optionally switch to developer mode.

cd <your Magento install dir>/bin
php magento deploy:mode:set developer

Web Setup Wizard

Click to view the Web Setup Wizard installation

The following example shows how to install using the Web Setup Wizard with the following options:

  • The Magento software is installed in the magento2 directory relative to the web server docroot, which means your storefront URL is http://192.0.2.5/magento2/

  • The database server is on the same host as the web server.

    The database name is magento, and the user name and password are both magento

  • The Magento administrator has the following properties:

    • User name is admin and the password is admin123
    • E-mail address is user@example.com
  • Default language is en_US (U.S. English)
  • Default currency is U.S. dollars
  • Default time zone is U.S. Central (America/Chicago)

To run the Web Setup Wizard:

  1. Enter the following URL in your browser’s address or location field:

    http://192.0.2.5/magento2
    
  2. At the welcome page, click Agree and Setup Magento.

    You must accept the license agreement to install the Magento software

  3. Step 1: Readiness Check verifies your system is ready to install the Magento software.

    Click Start Readiness Check

    The Readiness Check makes sure your system is ready for the Magento software

    • If the readiness check passes, click Next and continue with the next step.
    • If the readiness check fails, see Readiness check issues
  4. Step 2: Add a Database enables you to set up your Magento database.

    Set up your Magento database

  5. Step 3: Web Configuration enables you to enter the storefront and Magento Admin URLs.

    Enter your storefront and Magento Admin URLs

  6. Step 4: Customize Your Store enables you to enter a default store currency, time zone, and language.

    Customize the store's language, time zone, currency

  7. Step 5: Create Admin Account enables you to set up a Magento administrator. This user can perform all actions in the Magento Admin.

    Create a Magento administrator account

  8. Step 6: Install starts the installation when you click Install Now.

    You can optionally expand Console Log to see installation messages while the installation is in progress.

    If errors display, see Troubleshooting suggestions.

Installation part 3: Post-installation