Handler

You can use a handler to set up preconditions and prepare an initial testing environment for particular tests. For example, your scenario requires a particular widget that must be implicitly created before the test is started. You need a fixture, a data set, and a handler. The handler transfers data to the application being tested. The data is a list of fields from a fixture and values from data sets.

This topic focuses on handlers, and we’ll discuss types of handlers as well as how to create and use one.

Types of handlers

The FTF enables you to use any type of handler.

Magento uses the following handlers:

Type of handler Mechanism Example Tip
UI Drives the web browser. Set of scripts for Selenium that simulate user actions to create a widget through a web browser. The UI handler is much slower then the other handlers. When the test execution time is critical, you should avoid use of the UI handler. The UI handler code is very similar to the code of the test that doesn’t contain constraints. If you have a test for widget creation, you can re-use the code, because the code of UI handler that creates widget is very similar.
cURL Sends POST or PUT requests to the server hosting the application that is being tested. HTTP POST request to the application server, that transfers Widget fixture fields and corresponding values from the data set. Browser is not involved, that’s why the cURL handler works much faster than the UI handler.
WebAPI Sends a POST request using the REST API. See REST API reference documentation. Similar to cURL but uses the REST API entry point. Has the advantage of testing the API, faster than cURL.

Furthermore, you can create your own handlers, such as Direct, which is very fast because the Direct handler sends a direct call to the Magento application using Magento models. The Direct handler requires deep understanding of the Magento application, and also requires access to the Magento code and the database. Difficulties can be caused when the Magento code and Magento tests are run on different hosts.

Configuration

One fixture can have various handlers. When we create an entity in the test we do not indicate which handler to use. This work is delegated to a fallback, which is a queue of handlers in the priority order specified in config.xml.

config.xml

The default configuration for handlers is set in <magento2>/dev/tests/functional/etc/config.xml.dist. Create a duplicate of the file, and keep both, but make changes to the new one, which is called config.xml:

cp config.xml.dist config.xml

The following nodes influence handlers:

NodeSemanticsExample
<backendLoginUrl>Reference to the login form of the Admin.<backendLoginUrl>admin/auth/login</backendLoginUrl>
<backendLogin>A username to access the Admin as a Magento administrator.<backendLogin>admin</backendLogin>
<backendPassword>A password to access the Admin as a Magento administrator.<backendPassword>pas$worD</backendPassword>
<handler>Specifies priorities for different types of handler. The less the value, the higher the priority. The highest priority has value 0. token contains access token (used by WebAPI handlers only).
<handler>
  <webapi priority="0">
    <token>integration_token</token>
  </webapi>
  <curl priority="1" />
  <ui priority="2" />
</handler>

Handler components

Handler interface

Each handler must implement a handler interface.

You should mention in a fixture the handler_interface attribute with a reference to the PHP class: Magento\[module_name]\Test\Handler\[object_name]\[object_name]Interface (example for the Widget: Magento\Widget\Test\Handler\Widget\WidgetInterface).

Example of WidgetInterface.php (should be placed in <magento2_root_dir>/dev/tests/functional/tests/app/Magento/Widget/Test/Handler/Widget):

<?php
/**
 * Copyright © 2015 Magento. All rights reserved.
 * See COPYING.txt for license details.
 */

namespace Magento\Widget\Test\Handler\Widget;

use Magento\Mtf\Handler\HandlerInterface;

/**
 * Interface WidgetInterface
 */
interface WidgetInterface extends HandlerInterface
{
    //
}

Handler class

To use the handler class, create an interface, declare a fallback in the config.xml, and declare interface/class relationships in the di.xml. When this class is created, you can call the persist() method to create Magento entity (for example, widget). The method returns data that are matched with fixture fields. All fixture fields that are matched are assigned values from the handler.

The persist() method is declared in the InjectableFixture class by path <magento2_root_dir>/dev/tests/functional/vendor/magento/mtf/Magento/Mtf/Fixture/InjectableFixture.php.

<?php
/**
 * Persists Fixture Data into application.
 *
 * @return void
 */
public function persist()
{
    $this->eventManager->dispatchEvent(['persist_before'], [get_class($this)]);
    if (!empty($this->handlerInterface)) {
        $result = $this->handlerFactory->create($this->handlerInterface)->persist($this);
        if (!empty($result)) {
            foreach ($result as $key => $value) {
                $this->data[$key] = $value;
            }
        }
    }
    $this->eventManager->dispatchEvent(['persist_after'], [get_class($this)]);
}

Create the handler in the same directory where the interface is stored: <magento2_root_dir>/dev/tests/functional/tests/app/Magento/[module_name]/Test/Handler/[object_name]/[type_of_handler].php

di.xml

The di.xml file declares relationship between the interface and the handler class. The file must be placed in <magento2_root_dir>/dev/tests/functional/tests/app/Magento/[module_name]/Test/etc/[handler_type].

See an example for the Widget cURL handler (<magento2_root_dir>/dev/tests/functional/tests/app/Magento/Widget/Test/etc/curl/di.xml):

<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<!--
/**
 * Copyright © Magento, Inc. All rights reserved.
 * See COPYING.txt for license details.
 */
-->
<config xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="urn:magento:framework:ObjectManager/etc/config.xsd">
    <preference for="Magento\Widget\Test\Handler\Widget\WidgetInterface" type="Magento\Widget\Test\Handler\Widget\Curl" />
</config>

In this example, the di.xml file causes the Curl class to replace the WidgetInterface.

See the directory structure mentioned for the case with the Widget cURL handler:

How to create a cURL handler

Let’s create a cURL handler that creates a new widget.

  • Create a directory with the name Widget in the Handler directory of the Magento_Widget module - <magento2_root_dir>/dev/tests/functional/tests/app/Magento/Widget/Test/Handler/Widget.
  • In the same directory, create the interface for the cURL handler, and call the file WidgetInterface.php. Our new interface extends HandlerInterface class.
<?php
/**
 * Copyright © 2015 Magento. All rights reserved.
 * See COPYING.txt for license details.
 */

namespace Magento\Widget\Test\Handler\Widget;

use Magento\Mtf\Handler\HandlerInterface;

/**
 * Interface WidgetInterface
 */
interface WidgetInterface extends HandlerInterface
{
    //
}
  • Create Curl.php in the same directory. This file contains a handler class, which defines preparation of a data to create a new widget.

The following code includes detailed comments for better understanding.

<?php
/**
 * Copyright © 2015 Magento. All rights reserved.
 * See COPYING.txt for license details.
 */
 
namespace Magento\Widget\Test\Handler\Widget;

use Magento\Mtf\Fixture\FixtureInterface;
use Magento\Mtf\Handler\Curl as AbstractCurl;
use Magento\Mtf\Util\Protocol\CurlTransport;
use Magento\Mtf\Util\Protocol\CurlTransport\BackendDecorator;

/**
 * Curl handler for creating widgetInstance/frontendApp.
 */
class Curl extends AbstractCurl
{
    /**
     * Mapping values for data.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $mappingData = [
        'code' => [
            'CMS Page Link' => 'cms_page_link',
        ],
        'block' => [
            'Main Content Area' => 'content',
            'Sidebar Additional' => 'sidebar.additional',
            'Sidebar Main' => 'sidebar.main',
        ]
    ];
    
    /**
     * Post request for creating widget instance.
     *
     * @param FixtureInterface $fixture [optional]
     * @throws \Exception
     * @return null|array instance id
     */
    public function persist(FixtureInterface $fixture = null)
    {
        // Prepare data to send it using cURL.
        $data = $this->prepareData($fixture);
        // Build url to send post request to create widget.
        $url = $_ENV['app_backend_url'] . 'admin/widget_instance/save/code/'
            . $data['code'] . '/theme_id/' . $data['theme_id'];
        // Create CurlTransport instance to operate with cURL. BackendDecorator is used to log in to Magento backend.
        $curl = new BackendDecorator(new CurlTransport(), $this->_configuration);
        // Send request to url with prepared data.
        $curl->write($url, $data);
        // Read response.
        $response = $curl->read();
        // Close connection to server.
        $curl->close();
        // Verify whether request has been successful (check if success message is present).
        if (!strpos($response, 'data-ui-id="messages-message-success"')) {
            throw new \Exception("Widget instance creation by curl handler was not successful! Response: $response");
        }
        // Get id of created widget in order to use in other tests.
        $id = null;
        if (preg_match_all('/\/widget_instance\/edit\/instance_id\/(\d+)/', $response, $matches)) {
            $id = $matches[1][count($matches[1]) - 1];
        }
        return ['id' => $id];
    }
    
    /**
     * Prepare data to create widget.
     *
     * @param FixtureInterface $widget
     * @return array
     */
    protected function prepareData(FixtureInterface $widget)
    {
        // Replace UI fixture values with values that are applicable for cURL. Property $mappingData is used.
        $data = $this->replaceMappingData($widget->getData());
        // Perform data manipulations to prepare the cURL request based on input data.
        ...
        return $data;
    }
    // Additional methods.
}
  • Create di.xml in the etc/curl directory of the Magento_Widget module.
<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<!--
/**
 * Copyright © Magento, Inc. All rights reserved.
 * See COPYING.txt for license details.
 */
-->
<config xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="urn:magento:framework:ObjectManager/etc/config.xsd">
    <preference for="Magento\Widget\Test\Handler\Widget\WidgetInterface" type="Magento\Widget\Test\Handler\Widget\Curl" />
</config>

cURL authentication classes

In the previously mentioned example of the Curl.php code, authentication in the Admin is realized using the BackendDecorator class.

The FrontendDecorator class manages authentication in the storefront.

BackendDecorator class

BackendDecorator manages authentication in Admin and saves the Admin’s session.

Full class name is Mtf\Util\Protocol\CurlTransport\BackendDecorator.

Add to the Curl.php the following code:

$curl = new BackendDecorator(new CurlTransport(), new Config());

Config() takes Admin’s configuration from config.xml, where the username and the password are stored.

FrontendDecorator class

FrontendDecorator helps to authorize the customer and saves his session.

Full class name is Mtf\Util\Protocol\CurlTransport\FrontendDecorator.

Use the following code in the Curl.php file:

$curl = new FrontendDecorator(new CurlTransport(), $this->customer);

How to create a UI handler

Let’s create a UI handler that creates a new widget.

  • Create a directory with the name Widget in the Handler directory of the Magento_Widget module - <magento2_root_dir>/dev/tests/functional/tests/app/Magento/Widget/Test/Handler/Widget.
  • In the same directory, create interface for the UI handler, and call the file WidgetInterface.php. Our new interface extends HandlerInterface class.
<?php
/**
 * Copyright © 2015 Magento. All rights reserved.
 * See COPYING.txt for license details.
 */

namespace Magento\Widget\Test\Handler\Widget;

use Magento\Mtf\Handler\HandlerInterface;

/**
 * Interface WidgetInterface
 */
interface WidgetInterface extends HandlerInterface
{
    //
}
  • Create Ui.php in the same directory. This file contains a handler class, which defines preparation of a data to create a new widget.

The code has detailed comments for better understanding.

<?php
/**
 * Copyright © 2015 Magento. All rights reserved.
 * See COPYING.txt for license details.
 */
 
namespace Magento\Widget\Test\Handler\Widget;

use Magento\Mtf\Fixture\FixtureInterface;
use Magento\Mtf\Handler\Curl as AbstractCurl;
use Magento\Mtf\Util\Protocol\CurlTransport;
use Magento\Mtf\Util\Protocol\CurlTransport\BackendDecorator;

/**
 * Curl handler for creating widgetInstance/frontendApp.
 */
class Curl extends AbstractCurl
{
    /**
     * Mapping values for data.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $mappingData = [
        'code' => [
            'CMS Page Link' => 'cms_page_link',
        ],
        'block' => [
            'Main Content Area' => 'content',
            'Sidebar Additional' => 'sidebar.additional',
            'Sidebar Main' => 'sidebar.main',
        ]
    ];
    
    /**
     * Post request for creating widget instance.
     *
     * @param FixtureInterface $fixture [optional]
     * @throws \Exception
     * @return null|array instance id
     */
    public function persist(FixtureInterface $fixture = null)
    {
        // Prepare data to send it using cURL.
        $data = $this->prepareData($fixture);
        // Build url to send post request to create widget.
        $url = $_ENV['app_backend_url'] . 'admin/widget_instance/save/code/'
            . $data['code'] . '/theme_id/' . $data['theme_id'];
        // Create CurlTransport instance to operate with cURL. BackendDecorator is used to log in to Magento backend.
        $curl = new BackendDecorator(new CurlTransport(), $this->_configuration);
        // Send request to url with prepared data.
        $curl->write($url, $data);
        // Read response.
        $response = $curl->read();
        // Close connection to server.
        $curl->close();
        // Verify whether request has been successful (check if success message is present).
        if (!strpos($response, 'data-ui-id="messages-message-success"')) {
            throw new \Exception("Widget instance creation by curl handler was not successful! Response: $response");
        }
        // Get id of created widget in order to use in other tests.
        $id = null;
        if (preg_match_all('/\/widget_instance\/edit\/instance_id\/(\d+)/', $response, $matches)) {
            $id = $matches[1][count($matches[1]) - 1];
        }
        return ['id' => $id];
    }
    
    /**
     * Prepare data to create widget.
     *
     * @param FixtureInterface $widget
     * @return array
     */
    protected function prepareData(FixtureInterface $widget)
    {
        // Replace UI fixture values with values that are applicable for cURL. Property $mappingData is used.
        $data = $this->replaceMappingData($widget->getData());
        // Perform data manipulations to prepare the cURL request based on input data.
        ...
        return $data;
    }
    // Additional methods.
}
  • Create di.xml in the etc/ui directory of the Magento_Widget module.
<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<!--
/**
 * Copyright © 2015 Magento. All rights reserved.
 * See COPYING.txt for license details.
 */
-->
<config xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="urn:magento:framework:ObjectManager/etc/config.xsd">
    <preference for="Magento\Widget\Test\Handler\Widget\WidgetInterface"
                type="\Magento\Widget\Test\Handler\Widget\Ui" />
</config>

How to create a WebAPI handler

Let’s create a WebAPI handler that creates a new tax rule.

  • Create a directory with the name TaxRule in the Handler directory of the Magento_Tax module - <magento2_root_dir>/dev/tests/functional/tests/app/Magento/Tax/Test/Handler/TaxRule.
  • In the same directory, create interface for the WebAPI handler, and call the file TaxRuleInterface.php. Our new interface extends HandlerInterface class.
<?php
/**
 * Copyright © 2015 Magento. All rights reserved.
 * See COPYING.txt for license details.
 */

namespace Magento\Widget\Test\Handler\Widget;

use Magento\Mtf\Handler\HandlerInterface;

/**
 * Interface WidgetInterface
 */
interface WidgetInterface extends HandlerInterface
{
    //
}
  • Create Webapi.php in the same directory. The file contains a handler class. In the following example WebAPI handler uses some cURL handler methods to prepare data.
<?php
/**
 * Copyright © 2015 Magento. All rights reserved.
 * See COPYING.txt for license details.
 */
 
namespace Magento\Widget\Test\Handler\Widget;

use Magento\Mtf\Fixture\FixtureInterface;
use Magento\Mtf\Handler\Curl as AbstractCurl;
use Magento\Mtf\Util\Protocol\CurlTransport;
use Magento\Mtf\Util\Protocol\CurlTransport\BackendDecorator;

/**
 * Curl handler for creating widgetInstance/frontendApp.
 */
class Curl extends AbstractCurl
{
    /**
     * Mapping values for data.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $mappingData = [
        'code' => [
            'CMS Page Link' => 'cms_page_link',
        ],
        'block' => [
            'Main Content Area' => 'content',
            'Sidebar Additional' => 'sidebar.additional',
            'Sidebar Main' => 'sidebar.main',
        ]
    ];
    
    /**
     * Post request for creating widget instance.
     *
     * @param FixtureInterface $fixture [optional]
     * @throws \Exception
     * @return null|array instance id
     */
    public function persist(FixtureInterface $fixture = null)
    {
        // Prepare data to send it using cURL.
        $data = $this->prepareData($fixture);
        // Build url to send post request to create widget.
        $url = $_ENV['app_backend_url'] . 'admin/widget_instance/save/code/'
            . $data['code'] . '/theme_id/' . $data['theme_id'];
        // Create CurlTransport instance to operate with cURL. BackendDecorator is used to log in to Magento backend.
        $curl = new BackendDecorator(new CurlTransport(), $this->_configuration);
        // Send request to url with prepared data.
        $curl->write($url, $data);
        // Read response.
        $response = $curl->read();
        // Close connection to server.
        $curl->close();
        // Verify whether request has been successful (check if success message is present).
        if (!strpos($response, 'data-ui-id="messages-message-success"')) {
            throw new \Exception("Widget instance creation by curl handler was not successful! Response: $response");
        }
        // Get id of created widget in order to use in other tests.
        $id = null;
        if (preg_match_all('/\/widget_instance\/edit\/instance_id\/(\d+)/', $response, $matches)) {
            $id = $matches[1][count($matches[1]) - 1];
        }
        return ['id' => $id];
    }
    
    /**
     * Prepare data to create widget.
     *
     * @param FixtureInterface $widget
     * @return array
     */
    protected function prepareData(FixtureInterface $widget)
    {
        // Replace UI fixture values with values that are applicable for cURL. Property $mappingData is used.
        $data = $this->replaceMappingData($widget->getData());
        // Perform data manipulations to prepare the cURL request based on input data.
        ...
        return $data;
    }
    // Additional methods.
}
  • Create di.xml in the etc/webapi directory of the Magento_Tax module.
<?xml version="1.0" ?>
<!--
/**
 * Copyright © 2015 Magento. All rights reserved.
 * See COPYING.txt for license details.
 */
-->
<config xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="urn:magento:framework:ObjectManager/etc/config.xsd">
    <preference for="Magento\Tax\Test\Handler\TaxRule\TaxRuleInterface"
                type="\Magento\Tax\Test\Handler\TaxRule\Webapi" />
</config>