Magento Testing Guide

When talking about testing in Magento 2, we have to distinguish between different test types.

Functional

Functional tests are mainly used for system tests at a very high level by remote controlling a browser. Magento is treated as a black box, and tests happen from a user perspective.

For more information, see the Functional Testing Framework Guide.

API Functional

The Web API testing framework enables you to test the Magento Web API from the client application point of view.

For more information, see the Web API functional testing.

Integration

Integration tests run Magento PHP code in varying degrees of isolation. They tend to be a lot more low-level then functional tests. Because they do not utilize a browser to execute the tests, they can be a lot more granular in what they test. They also tend to run a lot quicker then functional tests.

For more information, see Running Integration Tests.

JavaScript

Much of the functionality in Magento 2 is provided with the help of sophisticated JavaScript. JavaScript tests ensure the frontend portion of Magento functions as expected.

For more information, please see the Extension Developer Guide on JavaScript Tests.

Static

Static code analysis checks that PHP code follows the Magento 2 coding standards and best practices. They usually are executed during continuous integration using the bin/magento tool.

Please see the magento dev:tests:run documentation for more information, using the test type static.

Unit

Unit tests are used to check a single unit of PHP code in isolation. They are usually written during development using test-driven development (TDD).

Because they do not require the full Magento application stack to be initialized, they run an order of magnitude faster then integration tests.

For more information, see Running Unit Tests.

Please refer to the article Writing testable code for more information on what to keep in mind when starting with TDD.

The bin/magento tool provides a common entry point to execute any of the tests, which can be useful for continuous integration. Please see the System Administrators Guide on Running Tests for more information.

Where to find the tests in the file system

Each of the test types listed above corresponds to a subdirectory in <magento2 root dir>/dev/tests.

dev/tests  
├── api-functional  
├── functional  
├── integration  
├── js  
├── static  
└── unit  

Each one of these test types has different requirements that must be satisfied before they can be executed.