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nginx

Magento supports nginx 1.8 (or the latest mainline version). You must also install the latest version of php-fpm.

Installation instructions vary based on which operating system you’re using:

Help if you’re just starting out

If you’re new to all this and need some help getting started, we suggest the following:

Ubuntu 16

The following section describes how to install Magento 2.x on Ubuntu 16 using nginx, PHP, and MySQL.

Install nginx

apt-get -y install nginx

After completing the following sections and installing Magento, we’ll use a sample configuration file to configure nginx.

Install and configure php-fpm

Magento requires several PHP extensions to function properly. In addition to these extensions, you must also install and configure the php-fpm extension if you’re using nginx.

To install and configure php-fpm:

  1. Install php-fpm and php-cli:

     apt-get -y install php7.0-fpm php7.0-cli
    
  2. Open the php.ini files in an editor:

     vim /etc/php/7.0/fpm/php.ini
     vim /etc/php/7.0/cli/php.ini
    
  3. Edit both files to match the following lines:

     memory_limit = 2G
     max_execution_time = 1800
     zlib.output_compression = On
    

    We recommend setting the memory limit to 2G when testing Magento. Refer to Required PHP settings for more information.

  4. Save and exit the editor.

  5. Restart the php-fpm service:

     systemctl restart php7.0-fpm
    

Install and configure MySQL

Refer to MySQL for more information.

Install and configure Magento2

There are several ways to download the Magento software, including:

For this example, we’ll download and extract an archive.

  1. Change to the web server docroot directory, or to a directory you’ve configured as a virtual host docroot. For this example, we’re using the Ubuntu default /var/www/html.

     cd /var/www/html
    
  2. Download the Magento archive, extract it, and rename the folder magento2/:

     wget https://github.com/magento/magento2/archive/2.1.tar.gz
     tar -xzvf 2.1.tar.gz
     mv magento2-2.1/ magento2/
    
  3. Set directory ownership and file permissions.

     cd /var/www/html/magento2
     find var vendor pub/static pub/media app/etc -type f -exec chmod g+w {} \;
     find var vendor pub/static pub/media app/etc -type d -exec chmod g+ws {} \;
     chown -R :www-data .
     chmod u+x bin/magento
    
  4. Install Composer globally. You’ll need Composer to update dependencies before installing Magento:

     curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer | sudo php -- --install-dir=/usr/bin --filename=composer
    
  5. Update Magento dependencies:

     cd /var/www/html/magento2
     composer install -v
    
  6. If prompted, enter your Magento authentication keys.

  7. Install Magento from the command line.

     cd /var/www/html/magento2/bin
     ./magento setup:install --base-url=http://www.magento-dev.com/ --db-host=localhost --db-name=magento --db-user=magento --db-password=magento --admin-firstname=admin --admin-lastname=admin --admin-email=admin@admin.com --admin-user=admin --admin-password=admin123 --language=en_US --currency=USD --timezone=America/Chicago --use-rewrites=1
    

    Replace http://www.magento-dev.com with your domain name.

    You cannot use the Web Setup Wizard when installing Magento on nginx. You must use the command line.

  8. Switch to developer mode:

     cd /var/www/html/magento2/bin
     ./magento deploy:mode:set developer
    

Configure nginx

We recommend configuring nginx using the nginx.conf.sample configuration file provided in the Magento installation directory and an nginx virtual host.

These instructions assume you’re using the Ubuntu default location for the nginx virtual host (e.g., /etc/nginx/sites-available) and Ubuntu default docroot (e.g., /var/www/html), however, you can change these locations to suit your environment.

  1. Create a new virtual host for your Magento site:

     vim /etc/nginx/sites-available/magento
    
  2. Add the following configuration:

     upstream fastcgi_backend {
         server  unix:/run/php/php7.0-fpm.sock;
     }
    
     server {
    
         listen 80;
         server_name www.magento-dev.com;
         set $MAGE_ROOT /var/www/html/magento2;
         include /var/www/html/magento2/nginx.conf.sample;
     }
    

    The include directive must point to the sample nginx configuration file in your Magento installation directory.

  3. Replace www.magento-dev.com with your domain name. This must match the base URL you specified when installing Magento.

  4. Save and exit the editor.

  5. Activate the newly created virtual host by creating a symlink to it in the /etc/nginx/sites-enabled directory:

     ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/magento /etc/nginx/sites-enabled
    
  6. Verify that the syntax is correct:

     nginx -t
    
  7. Restart nginx:

     systemctl restart nginx
    

Verify the installation

Open a web browser and navigate to your site’s base URL to verify the installation.

CentOS 7

The following section describes how to install Magento 2.x on CentOS 7 using nginx, PHP, and MySQL.

Install nginx

yum -y install epel-release
yum -y install nginx

After installation is complete, start nginx and configure it to start at boot time:

systemctl start nginx
systemctl enable nginx

After completing the following sections and installing Magento, we’ll use a sample configuration file to configure nginx.

Install and configure php-fpm

Magento requires several PHP extensions to function properly. In addition to these extensions, you must also install and configure the php-fpm extension if you’re using nginx.

  1. Install php-fpm:

     yum -y install php70w-fpm
    
  2. Open the /etc/php.ini file in an editor.

  3. Uncomment the cgi.fix_pathinfo line and change the value to 0.

  4. Edit the file to match the following lines:

     memory_limit = 2G
     max_execution_time = 1800
     zlib.output_compression = On
    

    We recommend setting the memory limit to 2G when testing Magento. Refer to Required PHP settings for more information.

  5. Uncomment the session path directory and set the path:

     session.save_path = "/var/lib/php/session"
    
  6. Save and exit the editor.

  7. Open /etc/php-fpm.d/www.conf in an editor.

  8. Edit the file to match the following lines:

     user = nginx
     group = nginx
     listen = /run/php-fpm/php-fpm.sock
     listen.owner = nginx
     listen.group = nginx
     listen.mode = 0660
    
  9. Uncomment the environment lines:

     env[HOSTNAME] = $HOSTNAME
     env[PATH] = /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin
     env[TMP] = /tmp
     env[TMPDIR] = /tmp
     env[TEMP] = /tmp
    
  10. Save and exit the editor.

  11. Create a new directory for the PHP session path and change the owner to the apache user and group:

    mkdir -p /var/lib/php/session/
    chown -R apache:apache /var/lib/php/
    
  12. Create a new directory for the PHP session path and change the owner to the apache user and group:

    mkdir -p /run/php-fpm/
    chown -R apache:apache /run/php-fpm/
    
  13. Start the php-fpm service and configure it to start at boot time:

    systemctl start php-fpm
    systemctl enable php-fpm
    
  14. Verify that the php-fpm service is running:

    netstat -pl | grep php-fpm.sock
    

Install and configure MySQL

Refer to MySQL for more information.

Install and configure Magento2

There are several ways to download the Magento software, including:

For this example, we’ll download and extract an archive.

  1. Change to the web server docroot directory, or to a directory you’ve configured as a virtual host docroot. For this example, we’re using the CentoOS default /usr/share/nginx/html.

     cd /usr/share/nginx/html
    
  2. Download the Magento archive, extract it, and rename the folder magento2/:

     wget https://github.com/magento/magento2/archive/2.1.tar.gz
     tar -xzvf 2.1.tar.gz
     mv magento2-2.1/ magento2/
    
  3. Set directory ownership and file permissions.

     cd /usr/share/nginx/html/magento2
     find var vendor pub/static pub/media app/etc -type f -exec chmod g+w {} \;
     find var vendor pub/static pub/media app/etc -type d -exec chmod g+ws {} \;
     chown -R :apache .
     chmod u+x bin/magento
    
  4. Install Composer globally. You’ll need Composer to update dependencies before installing Magento:

     curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer | sudo php -- --install-dir=/usr/bin --filename=composer
    
  5. Update Magento dependencies:

     cd /usr/share/nginx/html/magento2
     composer install
    
  6. If prompted, enter your Magento authentication keys.

  7. Install Magento from the command line.

     cd /usr/share/nginx/html/magento2/bin
     ./magento setup:install --base-url=http://www.magento-dev.com/ \
     --db-host=localhost --db-name=magento --db-user=magento --db-password=magento \
     --admin-firstname=Magento --admin-lastname=User --admin-email=user@example.com \
     --admin-user=admin --admin-password=admin123 --language=en_US \
     --currency=USD --timezone=America/Chicago --use-rewrites=1
    

    Replace http://www.magento-dev.com with your domain name.

    You cannot use the Web Setup Wizard when installing Magento on nginx. You must use the command line.

  8. Switch Magento to developer mode:

     cd /usr/share/nginx/html/magento2/bin
     ./magento deploy:mode:set developer
    

Configure nginx

We recommend configuring nginx using the nginx.conf.sample configuration file provided in the Magento installation directory and an nginx virtual host.

These instructions assume you’re using the CentOS default location for the nginx virtual host (e.g., /etc/nginx/conf.d) and default docroot (e.g., /usr/share/nginx/html), however, you can change these locations to suit your environment.

  1. Create a new virtual host for your Magento site:

     vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/magento.conf
    
  2. Add the following configuration:

     upstream fastcgi_backend {
         server  unix:/run/php-fpm/php-fpm.sock;
     }
    
     server {
    
         listen 80;
         server_name www.magento-dev.com;
         set $MAGE_ROOT /usr/share/nginx/html/magento2;
         include /usr/share/nginx/html/magento2/nginx.conf.sample;
     }
    

    The include directive must point to the sample nginx configuration file in your Magento installation directory.

  3. Replace www.magento-dev.com with your domain name.

  4. Save and exit the editor.

  5. Verify that the syntax is correct:

     nginx -t
    
  6. Restart nginx:

     systemctl restart nginx
    

Configure SELinux and Firewalld

SELinux is enabled by default on CentOS 7. Use the following command to see if it’s running:

sestatus

To configure SELinux and firewalld:

  1. Install SELinux management tools:

     yum -y install policycoreutils-python
    
  2. Run the following commands to change the security context for the Magento installation directory:

     semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_sys_rw_content_t '/usr/share/nginx/html/magento2/app/etc(/.*)?'
     semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_sys_rw_content_t '/usr/share/nginx/html/magento2/var(/.*)?'
     semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_sys_rw_content_t '/usr/share/nginx/html/magento2/pub/media(/.*)?'
     semanage fcontext -a -t httpd_sys_rw_content_t '/usr/share/nginx/html/magento2/pub/static(/.*)?'
     restorecon -Rv '/usr/share/nginx/html/magento2/'
    
  3. Install the firewalld package:

     yum -y install firewalld
    
  4. Start the firewall service and configure it to start at boot time:

     systemctl start firewalld
     systemctl enable firewalld
    
  5. Run the following commands to open ports for HTTP and HTTPS so you can access the Magento base URL from a web browser:

     firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=http
     firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=https
     firewall-cmd --reload
    

Verify the installation

Open a web browser and navigate to your site’s base URL to verify the installation.