Set up the file system owner

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Enable SSH keys

This step is optional if you installed nginx as your web server. The file system owner provides root access and permissions, for security reasons on a hosted system. Apache installations require

To enable the web server (Apache) to write files and directories in the file system but to also maintain ownership by the file system owner, both users must be in the same group. This is necessary so both users can share access to Adobe Commerce files, including files created using the Admin or other web-based utilities.

You need to create a new file system owner and put that user in the web server’s group. If you use an existing user account, we recommend the user account has a strong password for security reasons.

Create the file system owner

Create the file system owner with a strong password. file system owner is another term for the command-line user.

To create the file system owner, enter the following command as a user with root privileges:

adduser <username>

To give the user a password, enter the following command as a user with root privileges:

passwd <username>

Follow the prompts on your screen to create a password for the user.

If you do not have root privileges on your server, you can use another local user account. Confirm that the user has a strong password and continue with Put the file system owner in the web server group.

For example, to create a user named magento_user and give the user a password, enter:

sudo adduser magento_user
sudo passwd magento_user

Because the point of creating this user is to provide added security, it is essential that you create a strong password.

Find the web server user’s group

To find the web server user’s group:

  • CentOS:

    grep -E -i '^user|^group' /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf


    grep -Ei '^user|^group' /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

    Typically, the user and group name are both apache

  • Ubuntu: ps aux | grep apache to find the apache user, then groups <apache user> to find the group

    Typically, the username and the group name are both www-data

Put the file system owner in the web server’s primary group

Assuming the typical Apache group name for CentOS and Ubuntu, enter the following command as a user with root privileges:

  • CentOS: usermod -g apache <username>
  • Ubuntu: usermod -g www-data <username>

For example, to add the user magento_user to the apache primary group on CentOS:

usermod -g apache magento_user

To confirm that your user is a member of the web server group, enter the following command:

groups <username>

A sample result follows:

magento_user : apache

To complete the task, restart the web server:

  • Ubuntu: service apache2 restart
  • CentOS: service httpd restart

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