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Create your component file structure

In this section, we go over the different file structures for the component types. The Magento application looks for the files that make up a component including configuration files in particular places inside the component file structure. Follow the predefined file structures for the component type you are developing to ensure that it works as expected.

Root directory location

A component’s root directory is the top-level directory for that component under which its folders and files are located. Depending on how your Magento development environment was installed, your component’s root directory can be located in two places:

  • <Magento install directory>/app: This is the recommended location for component development. You can easily set up this type of environment by Cloning the Magento 2 GitHub repository.

    • For modules, use app/code.
    • For storefront themes, use app/design/frontend.
    • For Admin themes, use app/design/adminhtml.
    • For language packages, use app/i18n.
  • <Magento install directory>/vendor: This location is found in the alternative setups where the composer create-project. command was used to get a Magento 2 metapackage (which downloads the CE or EE code), or a compressed Magento 2 archive was extracted in order to install Magento.

    Any third-party components (and the Magento application itself) are downloaded and stored under the <Magento install directory>/vendor directory. If you are using Git to manage your project, this directory is typically added to the <Magento install directory>/.gitignore file. Therefore, we recommend you do your customization work in <Magento install directory>/app/code, not <Magento install directory>/vendor.

Module file structure

A typical file structure for a Magento 2 module can look like the following:

Module File Structure

Common directories

Following are some common module directories:

  • Block: contains PHP view classes as part of Model View Controller(MVC) vertical implementation of module logic.
  • Controller: contains PHP controller classes as part of MVC vertical implementation of module logic.
  • etc: contains configuration files; in particular, module.xml, which is required.
  • Model: contains PHP model classes as part of MVC vertical implementation of module logic.
  • Setup: contains classes for module database structure and data setup which are invoked when installing or upgrading.

Additional directories

Additional folders can be added for configuration and other ancillary functions for items like plugin-ins, localization, and layout files.

  • Api: contains any PHP classes exposed to the API.
  • Console: contains CLI commands. For more info, see Add CLI commands.
  • Cron: contains cron job definitions.
  • CustomerData: contains section files.
  • Helper: contains aggregated functionality.
  • i18n: contains localization files.
  • Observer: contains files for executing commands from the listener.
  • Plugin: contains any needed plug-ins.
  • UI: contains data generation files.
  • view: contains view files, including static view files, design templates, email templates, and layout files.

Theme file structure

A typical theme file structure can look like the following:

├── composer.json
├── etc
│   └── view.xml
├── i18n
│   └── en_US.csv
├── LICENSE.txt
├── media
│   └── preview.jpg
├── registration.php
└── web
    ├── css
    │   ├── email.less
    │   ├── print.less
    │   ├── source
    │   │   ├── _actions-toolbar.less
    │   │   ├── _breadcrumbs.less
    │   │   ├── _buttons.less
    │   │   ├── components
    │   │   │   └── _modals_extend.less
    │   │   ├── _icons.less
    │   │   ├── _layout.less
    │   │   ├── _theme.less
    │   │   ├── _tooltips.less
    │   │   ├── _typography.less
    │   │   └── _variables.less
    │   ├── _styles.less
    │   ├── styles-l.less
    │   └── styles-m.less
    ├── images
    │   └── logo.svg
    └── js
        ├── navigation-menu.js
        ├── responsive.js
        └── theme.js

Common directories

Typical theme directories are:

  • etc: Contains configuration files such as the view.xml file which contains image configurations for all images and thumbnails.
  • i18n: Translation dictionaries, if any.
  • media: Theme preview images (screen capture of your theme) can be put in here.
  • web: Optional directory that contains static files organized into the following subdirectories:

    • css/source: Contains a theme’s less configuration files that invoke mixins for global elements from the Magento UI library, and the theme.less file that overrides the default variables values.
    • css/source/lib: Contains view files that override the UI library files stored in lib/web/css/source/lib.
    • fonts: The folder to place the different fonts for your theme.
    • images: Static images folder.
    • js: The folder for your JavaScript files.

For more details on the theme folder structure, see Magento theme structure.

Language package file structure

A typical directory structure for three language packages follows:

├── de_DE
│   ├── composer.json
│   ├── language.xml
│   ├── LICENSE_AFL.txt
│   ├── LICENSE.txt
│   └── registration.php
├── en_US
│   ├── composer.json
│   ├── language.xml
│   ├── LICENSE_AFL.txt
│   ├── LICENSE.txt
│   └── registration.php
├── pt_BR
│   ├── composer.json
│   ├── language.xml
│   ├── LICENSE_AFL.txt
│   ├── LICENSE.txt
│   └── registration.php

The only required directory for a language package is the top-level directory. Although not required, we recommend that the directory name match the ISO code to identify the locale.

For more information about language packages, see Translation dictionaries and language packages.


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