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Common layout customization tasks

In this topic

This article describes the following typical layout customization tasks:

To ensure stability and secure your customizations from being deleted during upgrade, do not change out-of-the-box Magento module and theme layouts. To customize your layout, create extending and overriding layout files in your custom theme.

Set the page layout

The type of page layout to be used for a certain page is defined in the page configuration file, in the layout attribute of the root <page> node.

Example: Change the layout of Advanced Search page from default “1-column” to “2-column with left bar”. To do this, extend catalogsearch_advanced_index.xml in your theme by adding the following layout:

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<page layout="2columns-left" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="urn:magento:framework:View/Layout/etc/page_configuration.xsd">
...
</page>

Include static resources (JavaScript, CSS, fonts)

JavaScript, CSS, and other static assets are added in the <head> section of a page configuration file. The default look of a Magento store page <head> is defined by app/code/Magento/Theme/view/frontend/layout/default_head_blocks.xml. The recommended way to add CSS and JavaScript is to extend this file in your custom theme, and add the assets there. The following file is a sample of a file you must add:

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<page xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="urn:magento:framework:View/Layout/etc/page_configuration.xsd">
  <head>
    <!-- Add local resources -->
    <css src="css/my-styles.css"/>
    <!-- The following two ways to add local JavaScript files are equal -->
    <script src="Magento_Catalog::js/sample1.js"/>
    <link src="js/sample.js"/>
    <!-- Add external resources -->
    <css src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.4/css/bootstrap-theme.min.css" src_type="url" />
    <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.4/js/bootstrap.min.js" src_type="url" />
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" src="http://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Montserrat" src_type="url" />
  </head>
</page>

When adding external resources, specifying the src_type="url" argument value is a must.

You can use either the <link src="js/sample.js"/> or <script src="js/sample.js"/> instruction to add a locally stored JavaScript file to your theme.

The path to assets is specified relatively to one the following locations:

  • <theme_dir>/web-
  • <theme_dir>/<Namespace>_<Module>/web-

Adding conditional comments

Conditional comments are meant to give special instructions for Internet Explorer. In the terms of adding assets, you can add CSS files to be included for a specific version of Internet Explorer. A sample follows:

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<page xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="urn:magento:framework:View/Layout/etc/page_configuration.xsd">
  <head>
    <css src="css/ie-9.css" ie_condition="IE 9" />
  </head>
</page>

This adds an IE conditional comment in the generated HTML, like in the following example:

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<!--[if IE 9]>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" media="all" href="<your_store_web_address>/pub/static/frontend/OrangeCo/orange/en_US/css/ie-9.css" />
<![endif]-->

In this example, orange is a custom theme created by the OrangeCo vendor.

Remove static resources (JavaScript, CSS, fonts)

To remove the static resources, linked in a page <head>, make a change similar to the following in a theme extending app/design/frontend/<Vendor>/<theme>/Magento_Theme/layout/default_head_blocks.xml:

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<page xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="urn:magento:framework:View/Layout/etc/page_configuration.xsd">
   <head>
    <!-- Remove local resources -->
    <remove src="css/styles-m.css" />
    <remove src="my-js.js"/>
    <remove src="Magento_Catalog::js/compare.js" />
    <!-- Remove external resources -->
    <remove src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.4/css/bootstrap-theme.min.css"/>
    <remove src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.3.4/js/bootstrap.min.js"/>
    <remove src="http://fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Montserrat" />
   </head>
</page>

Note, that if a static asset is added with a module path (for example Magento_Catalog::js/sample.js) in the initial layout, you need to specify the module path as well when removing the asset.

Add meta tags to the head block

To add <meta> tags to the <head> element of your layout, create a theme-extending file similar to: app/design/frontend/<Vendor>/<theme>/Magento_Theme/layout/default_head_blocks.xml.

By default, the class that renders the <meta> tags is \Magento\Framework\View\Page\Config\Renderer. This class can render five meta types and a catch-all (the default).]

  1. og:
  2. charset
  3. content_type
  4. x_ua_compatible
  5. media_type
  6. “default” case

Examples: Use the following examples to include in your own layout themes.

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<page xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="urn:magento:framework:View/Layout/etc/page_configuration.xsd">
   <head>
    <!-- This will create a tag like '<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1">' -->
    <meta name="x_ua_compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"/>
    <!-- This will create a tag like '<meta property="og:type" content="article"/>'' -->
    <meta name="og:type" content="article"/>
    <!-- This will create a tag like '<meta charset="UTF-8">' -->
    <meta name="charset" content="UTF-8"/>
    <!-- This will create a tag like '<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="content-type-value"/>' -->
    <meta name="content_type" content="content-type-value"/>
    <!-- This tag will not render (see \Magento\Framework\View\Page\Config\Renderer for details) -->
    <meta name="media_type" content="any-value"/>
    <!-- This will create a tag like '<meta name="my_custom_type" content="my_custom_value"/>' -->
    <meta name="my_custom_type" content="my_custom_value"/>
   </head>
</page>

Create a container

Use the following sample to create (declare) a container:

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<container name="some.container" as="someContainer" label="Some Container" htmlTag="div" htmlClass="some-container" />

Reference a container

To update a container use the <referenceContainer> instruction.

Example: add links to the page header panel.

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<referenceContainer name="header.panel">
  <block class="Magento\Framework\View\Element\Html\Links" name="header.links">
    <arguments>
      <argument name="css_class" xsi:type="string">header links</argument>
    </arguments>
  </block>
</referenceContainer>

To wrap div or block using container see example:

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<container name="some.container" as="someContainer" label="Some Container" htmlTag="div" htmlClass="some-container">
  <block class="Magento\Framework\View\Element\Html\Links" name="header.links">
    <arguments>
      <argument name="css_class" xsi:type="string">header links</argument>
    </arguments>
  </block>
</container>

Create a block

Blocks are created (declared) using the <block> instruction.

Example: add a block with a product SKU information.

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<block class="Magento\Catalog\Block\Product\View\Description" name="product.info.sku" template="product/view/attribute.phtml" after="product.info.type">
  <arguments>
    <argument name="at_call" xsi:type="string">getSku</argument>
    <argument name="at_code" xsi:type="string">sku</argument>
    <argument name="css_class" xsi:type="string">sku</argument>
  </arguments>
</block>

Reference a block

To update a block use the <referenceBlock> instruction.

Example: pass the image to the logo block.

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<referenceBlock name="logo">
  <arguments>
    <argument name="logo_file" xsi:type="string">images/logo.png</argument>
  </arguments>
</referenceBlock>

Reference a CMS block

A CMS block is injected into the layout by using the Magento/Cms/Block/Block class with the block_id argument. Any block or container can be used as a reference.

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<referenceContainer name="content.bottom">
    <block class="Magento\Cms\Block\Block" name="block_identifier">
        <arguments>
            <!- CMS Block id -->
            <argument name="block_id" xsi:type="string">my_cms_block_identifier</argument>
        </arguments>
    </block>
</referenceContainer>

As a result, the CMS block is added to the bottom of the page.

CMS Block

Making the block visibility dynamic

Any block can be configured to show or not based on a Magento/Config/Model/Config/Source/Yesno system configuration field, using the ifconfig argument. For the value, use the XPath to the needed field.

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<block class="Namespace\Module\Block\Type" name="block.example" ifconfig="my/yesno/field">
    ...
</block>

Set the template used by a block

There are two ways to set the template for a block:

  • using the template attribute
  • using the <argument> instruction

Both approaches are demonstrated in the following examples of changing the template of the page title block.

Example 1:

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 <referenceBlock name="page.main.title" template="%Namespace_Module::new_template.phtml%"/>

Example 2:

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 <referenceBlock name="page.main.title">
   <arguments>
     <argument name="template" xsi:type="string">%Namespace_Module::new_template.phtml%</argument>
   </arguments>
 </referenceBlock>

In both examples, the template is specified according to the following:

  • Namespace_Module: defines the module the template belongs to. For example, Magento_Catalog.
  • new_template.phtml: the path to the template relatively to the templates directory. It might be <module_dir>/view/<area>/templates or <theme_dir>/<Namespace_Module>/templates.

Template values specified as attributes have higher priority during layout generation, than the ones specified using <argument>. It means, that if for a certain block, a template is set as attribute, it will override the value you specify in <argument> for the same block.

Modify block arguments

To modify block arguments, use the <referenceBlock> instruction.

Example: change the value of the existing block argument and add a new argument.

Initial block declaration:

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<block class="Namespace_Module_Block_Type" name="block.example">
  <arguments>
    <argument name="label" xsi:type="string">Block Label</argument>
  </arguments>
</block>

Extending layout:

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<referenceBlock name="block.example">
  <arguments>
    <!-- Modified block argument -->
    <argument name="label" xsi:type="string">New Block Label</argument>
    <!- Newly added block argument -->
    <argument name="custom_label" xsi:type="string">Custom Block Label</argument>
  </arguments>
</referenceBlock>

Use block object methods to set block properties

There are two ways to access block object methods:

  • using the <argument> instruction for <block> or <referenceBlock>
  • using the <action> instruction. This way is not recommended, but can be used for calling those methods, which are not refactored yet to be accessed through <argument>.

Example 1: Set a CSS class and add an attribute for the product page using <argument>.

Extending layout:

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<referenceBlock name="page.main.title">
  <arguments>
    <argument name="css_class" xsi:type="string">product</argument>
    <argument name="add_base_attribute" xsi:type="string">itemprop="name"</argument>
  </arguments>
</referenceBlock>

Example 2: Set a page title using <action>.

Do not use <action> if the method implementation allows calling it using <argument> for <block> or <referenceBlock>.

Extending layout:

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<referenceBlock name="page.main.title">
  <action method="setPageTitle">
    <argument translate="true" name="title" xsi:type="string">Catalog Advanced Search</argument>
  </action>
</referenceBlock>

Rearrange elements

In layout files you can change the elements order on a page. This can be done using one of the following:

Example of <move> usage: put the stock availability and SKU blocks next to the product price on a product page.

In the Magento Blank theme these elements are located as follows:

Place the stock availability and SKU blocks after product price block on a product page, and move the review block out of the product-info-price container. To do this, add the extending catalog_product_view.xml in the app/design/frontend/OrangeCo/orange/Magento_Catalog/layout/ directory:

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<page layout="1column" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="urn:magento:framework:View/Layout/etc/page_configuration.xsd">
  <body>
    <move element="product.info.stock.sku" destination="product.info.price" after="product.price.final"/>
    <move element="product.info.review" destination="product.info.main" before="product.info.price"/>
  </body>
</page>

This would make the product page look like following:

To learn how to locate the layout file you need to customize, see Locate templates, layouts, and styles.

Add functionality to existing elements

Let us say that we want to add functionality to a core template with custom logic using a ViewModel in the cart/item/default.phtml template found in Magento/Checkout/view/frontend/layout/checkout_cart_item_renderers.xml:

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<?xml version="1.0"?>
<page xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="urn:magento:framework:View/Layout/etc/page_configuration.xsd">
<body>
  <referenceBlock name="checkout.cart.item.renderers.default">
    <arguments>
      <argument name="viewModel" xsi:type="object">Vendor\CustomModule\ViewModel\Class</argument>
    </arguments>
  </referenceBlock>
</body>

You would also have to implement the right interface in your viewModel class (i.e. ArgumentInterface):

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namespace Vendor\CustomModule\ViewModel;

class Class implements \Magento\Framework\View\Element\Block\ArgumentInterface
{
  public function __construct()
  {

  }
}

Modify layout with plugins (interceptors)

Plugins can be also useful, when we need to make some layout updates. Here is an example of how a css class can be added to <body> tag on product view page.

etc/frontend/di.xml

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<?xml version="1.0"?>
<config xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="urn:magento:framework:ObjectManager/etc/config.xsd">
    <type name="Magento\Catalog\Helper\Product\View">
        <plugin name="add_custom_body_class_to_product_page"
                type="OrangeCompany\Learning\Plugin\AddBodyClassToProductPagePlugin"/>
    </type>
</config>

OrangeCompany/Learning/Plugin/AddBodyClassToProductPagePlugin.php

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<?php

namespace OrangeCompany\Learning\Plugin;

use Magento\Catalog\Helper\Product\View as ProductViewHelper;
use Magento\Framework\View\Result\Page;

/**
 * Class AddBodyClassToProductPagePlugin
 */
class AddBodyClassToProductPagePlugin
{
    /**
     * Adding a custom class to body
     *
     * @param ProductViewHelper $subject
     * @param Page $resultPage
     * @param $product
     * @param $params
     *
     * @return array
     */
    public function beforeInitProductLayout(
        ProductViewHelper $subject,
        Page $resultPage,
        $product,
        $params
    ): array {
        $pageConfig = $resultPage->getConfig();

        if (/*add your logic here*/) {
            $pageConfig->addBodyClass('my-new-body-class');
        }

        return [$resultPage, $product, $params];
    }
}

As result, the <body> tag has a new my-new-body-class class on all product pages.

You can remove navigation links from the ‘My Account’ dashboard on the storefront by setting the remove attribute.

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<!-- ################################## -->
<!-- Magento version: Open Source -->
<!-- ################################## -->

<!-- File:  app/design/frontend/<Vendor>/<theme>/Magento_Customer/layout/customer_account.xml -->
<!-- "My Account" link -->
<referenceBlock name="customer-account-navigation-account-link" remove="true"/>

<!-- "Address Book" link -->
<referenceBlock name="customer-account-navigation-address-link" remove="true"/>

<!-- "Account Information" link -->
<referenceBlock name="customer-account-navigation-account-edit-link" remove="true"/>

<!-- File:  app/design/frontend/<Vendor>/<theme>/Magento_Downloadable/layout/customer_account.xml -->
<!-- "My Downloadable Products" link -->
<referenceBlock name="customer-account-navigation-downloadable-products-link" remove="true"/>

<!-- File:  app/design/frontend/<Vendor>/<theme>/Magento_Newsletter/layout/customer_account.xml -->
<!-- "Newsletter Subscriptions" link -->
<referenceBlock name="customer-account-navigation-newsletter-subscriptions-link" remove="true"/>

<!-- File:  app/design/frontend/<Vendor>/<theme>/Magento_Paypal/layout/customer_account.xml -->
<!-- "Billing Agreements" link -->
<referenceBlock name="customer-account-navigation-billing-agreements-link" remove="true"/>

<!-- File:  app/design/frontend/<Vendor>/<theme>/Magento_Review/layout/customer_account.xml -->
<!-- "My Product Reviews" link -->
<referenceBlock name="customer-account-navigation-product-reviews-link" remove="true"/>

<!-- File:  app/design/frontend/<Vendor>/<theme>/Magento_Sales/layout/customer_account.xml -->
<!-- "My Orders" link -->
<referenceBlock name="customer-account-navigation-orders-link" remove="true"/>

<!-- File:  app/design/frontend/<Vendor>/<theme>/Magento_Vault/layout/customer_account.xml -->
<!-- "Stored Payment Methods" link -->
<referenceBlock name="customer-account-navigation-my-credit-cards-link" remove="true"/>

<!-- File:  app/design/frontend/<Vendor>/<theme>/Magento_Wishlist/layout/customer_account.xml -->
<!-- "My Wish List" link -->
<referenceBlock name="customer-account-navigation-wish-list-link" remove="true"/>

<!-- ################################### -->
<!-- Magento version: Commerce -->
<!-- ################################### -->

<!-- File:  app/design/frontend/<Vendor>/<theme>/Magento_AdvancedCheckout/layout/customer_account.xml -->
<!-- "Order by SKU" link -->
<referenceBlock name="customer-account-navigation-checkout-sku-link" remove="true"/>

<!-- File:  app/design/frontend/<Vendor>/<theme>/Magento_CustomerCustomAttributes/layout/customer_account.xml -->
<!-- "Store credit" link -->
<referenceBlock name="customer-account-navigation-customer-balance-link" remove="true"/>

<!-- File:  app/design/frontend/<Vendor>/<theme>/Magento_GiftCardAccount/layout/customer_account.xml -->
<!-- "Gift card" link -->
<referenceBlock name="customer-account-navigation-gift-card-link" remove="true"/>

<!-- File:  app/design/frontend/<Vendor>/<theme>/Magento_GiftRegistry/layout/customer_account.xml -->
<!-- "Gift Registry" link -->
<referenceBlock name="customer-account-navigation-giftregistry-link" remove="true"/>

<!-- File:  app/design/frontend/<Vendor>/<theme>/Magento_Invitation/layout/customer_account.xml -->
<!-- "My Invitations" link -->
<referenceBlock name="customer-account-navigation-magento-invitation-link" remove="true"/>

<!-- File:  app/design/frontend/<Vendor>/<theme>/Magento_Reward/layout/customer_account.xml -->
<!-- "Reward Points" link -->
<referenceBlock name="customer-account-navigation-reward-link" remove="true"/>

<!-- File:  app/design/frontend/<Vendor>/<theme>/Magento_Rma/layout/customer_account.xml -->
<!-- "My Returns" link -->
<referenceBlock name="customer-account-navigation-return-history-link" remove="true"/>

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