Using Grunt for Magento tasks

The topic describes how to install and configure Grunt JavaScript task runner.

Overview

You can use Grunt to automatize any tasks you need, but out of the box Magento comes with pre-configured grunt tasks for compiling LESS files.

Prerequisites

Make sure that you set your Magento application to the developer or default mode.

Installing and configuring Grunt

Magento has built-in Grunt tasks configured, but there are still several steps you need to take to be able to use it:

  1. Install node.js to any location on your machine.

  2. Install Grunt CLI tool globally. To do this, run the following command in a command prompt:

    npm install -g grunt-cli
    
  3. Rename the following files in your Magento root directory:
    • package.json.sample to package.json
    • Gruntfile.js.sample to Gruntfile.js
    • grunt-config.json.sample to grunt-config.json
  4. Install (or refresh) the node.js project dependency, including Grunt, for your Magento instance. To do this, run the following commands in a command prompt:

    cd your_Magento_instance_directory
    npm install
    npm update
    
  5. (Optional) If you want to use Grunt for “watching” changes automatically, without reloading pages in a browser each time, install the LiveReload extension in your browser.

Grunt configuration file

If installed as described above, Grunt will use the default configuration files located in the dev/tools/grunt/configs/ directory. For example, the default configuration file for working with themes is dev/tools/grunt/configs/themes.js.

The problem with using the default configuration files is that they can get overwritten during code updates, together with your changes in them. To avoid this, you can use custom configuration files. The ability to use custom configuration files is implemented by the file router mechanism added by Magento.

Using custom Grunt configuration files

There are several ways to declare a custom configuration file.

How to declare custom config file: Option 1

To use a custom file for Grunt configuration:

  1. Copy the default configuration file to the preferred location in the Magento instance directory. Do not change the file name
  2. Open the grunt-config.json file in the Magento root and set configurations object as follows
    • key: file alias
    • value: path to your custom file

    Example: If your custom configuration file local-themes.js is located in the <magento_root>/dev/tools/grunt/configs directory, the following is already set in your grunt-config.json:

    {
        "themes": "dev/tools/grunt/configs/local-themes/themes"
    } This path is also added to your .gitignore by default
    

How to declare custom configuration file: Option 2

You can also use the other way to declare a custom config file:

  1. In your Grunt related scripts, in the file router set the alias and path to the default configuration file. For example, for the themes.js configuration file this would look like following:

    filesRouter.set('themes', 'dev/tools/grunt/configs/themes');
    

    It must be added earlier, than the get() method with this alias is called.

  2. In the dev/tools/grunt/configs/ directory, create a copy of the default configuration file. Change its name by adding the “.loc” suffix. For example, your copy of themes.js will be themes.loc.js.

How to use custom configuration file

To tell Grunt to use a custom configuration file, instead of the default one, add the following in your script:

  1. Require file-router:

    var fileRouter = require('/files-router');
    
  2. Call the get(%file_alias%) method to get the configuration file.

    Example:

    var themes = fileRouter.get('themes');