You are reading the documentation for version 2.2. Magento 2.3 is the latest version available. Ensure you are reading the documentation for your version of Magento.

RequireJS in Magento

This topic describes general concepts of how the RequireJS library is used in Magento, with examples. Please refer to official RequireJS documentation for in-depth explanation.

RequireJS is a JavaScript file and module loader. It improves perceived page load times because it allows JavaScript to load in the background. In particular, it enables asynchronous JavaScript loading.

RequireJS configuration in Magento

All configuration is done in the requirejs-config.js file. It has a single root object config which contains the configuration options described below. All the configuration settings are optional and are used only when required. The following snippet is a sample requirejs-config.js describing the structure of the file. Example requirejs-config.js file

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
var config = {
    'map': {...},
    'paths': {...}
    'shim': {...},
    'config': {
        'mixins': {...}
    }
}

map

The map configuration maps (connects) any real AMD modules that calls define(), to the specified alias. In the snippet below, * means all loaded RequireJS modules can use the specified alias.

1
2
3
4
5
map: {
    '*': {
        alias: 'Vendor_Module/js/complex/path/amd-module'
    }
}

Now we can use our Vendor_Module/js/complex/path/module using alias in any RequireJS module or config file without needing to type the entire path. For example, in Magento, catalogAddToCart is mapped to Magento_Catalog/js/catalog-add-to-cart and can be used anywhere as a RequireJS module name.

1
2
3
4
5
map: {
    '*': {
        catalogAddToCart: 'Magento_Catalog/js/catalog-add-to-cart'
    }
}

paths

The paths configuration, similar to map, is used for aliasing not just any real AMD module that calls define(), but also any JS file (event from a URL), HTML templates, etc. Magento uses this to alias URLs and third party libraries.

1
2
3
4
paths: {
    'alias': 'library/file',
    'another-alias': 'https://some-library.com/file'
}

deps

The deps configuration is used to add a dependency. It can either be used directly under var config = {} or under a shim configuration. Adding modules under an independent deps configuration will load the specified modules in all pages.

In this snippet, the custom Vendor_Module/js/module will be loaded in all pages.

1
deps: ['Vendor_Module/js/module']

shim

The shim configuration is used to build a dependency on a third party library, since we cannot modify it.

When to use the shim configuration:

  • To add a new dependency to a third party library
  • To add a new dependency to a third party library which does not use an AMD module
  • To change load order by adding a dependency to a third party library

In this snippet, dependencies are added directly in an array, or it can be specified as an array under the deps key. The exports key is used to specify under what identifier the module is exported into. This export identifier can be used to access it.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
shim: {
    '3rd-party-library': ['myJSFile'],
    'another-3rd-party-library': {
        deps: ['myJSFile'],
        exports: 'another3rdPartyLibrary'
    }
}

mixins

The mixins configuration is used to overwrite component methods of an AMD module which returns either a UI component,a jQuery widget, or a JS object. Unlike the above configuration properties, the mixins property is under the config property, apart from the parent object called config.

In this snippet, Vendor_Module/js/module-mixin will overwrite the existing component methods in Vendor_Module/js/module with the specified component methods. It is a convention to name the mixin by appending a -mixin to the original path/to/js, although not required.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
'config': {
    'mixins': {
        'Vendor_Module/js/module': {
            'Vendor_Module/js/module-mixin': true
        }
    }
}

The concept of Javascript mixins itself is explained in depth in Using Javascript Mixins.