In this section, we go over the different file structures for the component types. The Magento application looks for the files that make up a component including configuration files in particular places inside the component file structure. Follow the predefined file structures for the component type you are developing to ensure that it works as expected.
Root directory location
A component’s root directory matches the component’s name and contains all its subdirectories and files. Based on how you installed Magento, you can put your component’s root directory in one of two places:
<Magento install directory>/app: This is the recommended location for component development. You can set up this environment by Cloning the Magento 2 GitHub repository.
- For modules, use
- For storefront themes, use
- For Admin themes, use
- For language packages, use
- For modules, use
<Magento install directory>/vendor: You will find this location for installations that use the
composer create-projectto install the Magento 2 metapackage (which downloads the CE or EE code). You will also find this location if you install Magento by extracting the compressed Magento 2 archive.
Magento installs third-party components in the
<Magento install directory>/vendordirectory. But we recommend adding your components to the
<Magento install directory>/app/codedirectory. If you add your component to the
<Magento install directory>/vendordirectory, Git will ignore it because Magento adds the
vendordirectory to the
<Magento install directory>/.gitignorefile.
Module file structure
A typical file structure for a Magento 2 module can look like the following:
Following are some common module directories:
Block: contains PHP view classes as part of Model View Controller(MVC) vertical implementation of module logic.
Controller: contains PHP controller classes as part of MVC vertical implementation of module logic.
etc: contains configuration files; in particular,
module.xml, which is required.
Model: contains PHP model classes as part of MVC vertical implementation of module logic.
Setup: contains classes for module database structure and data setup which are invoked when installing or upgrading.
ViewModel: contains PHP model classes as part of a model-view-viewmodel (MVVM) implementation. It allows developers to offload features and business logic from block classes into separate classes that are easier to maintain, test, and reuse.
Api: contains any PHP classes exposed to the API.
Console: contains CLI commands. For more info, see Add CLI commands.
Cron: contains cron job definitions.
CustomerData: contains section files.
Helper: contains aggregated functionality.
i18n: contains localization files.
Observer: contains files for executing commands from the listener.
Plugin: contains any needed plug-ins.
UI: contains data generation files.
view: contains view files, including static view files, design templates, email templates, and layout files.
Theme file structure
A typical theme file structure can look like the following:
├── composer.json ├── etc │ └── view.xml ├── i18n │ └── en_US.csv ├── LICENSE_AFL.txt ├── LICENSE.txt ├── media │ └── preview.jpg ├── registration.php └── web ├── css │ ├── email.less │ ├── print.less │ ├── source │ │ ├── _actions-toolbar.less │ │ ├── _breadcrumbs.less │ │ ├── _buttons.less │ │ ├── components │ │ │ └── _modals_extend.less │ │ ├── _icons.less │ │ ├── _layout.less │ │ ├── _theme.less │ │ ├── _tooltips.less │ │ ├── _typography.less │ │ └── _variables.less │ ├── _styles.less │ ├── styles-l.less │ └── styles-m.less ├── images │ └── logo.svg └── js ├── navigation-menu.js ├── responsive.js └── theme.js
Typical theme directories are:
etc: Contains configuration files such as the
view.xmlfile which contains image configurations for all images and thumbnails.
i18n: Translation dictionaries, if any.
media: Theme preview images (screen capture of your theme) can be put in here.
web: Optional directory that contains static files organized into the following subdirectories:
css/source: Contains a theme’s
lessconfiguration files that invoke mixins for global elements from the Magento UI library, and the
theme.lessfile that overrides the default variables values.
css/source/lib: Contains view files that override the UI library files stored in
fonts: The folder to place the different fonts for your theme.
images: Static images folder.
For more details on the theme folder structure, see Magento theme structure.
Language package file structure
A typical directory structure for three language packages follows:
├── de_DE │ ├── composer.json │ ├── language.xml │ ├── LICENSE_AFL.txt │ ├── LICENSE.txt │ └── registration.php ├── en_US │ ├── composer.json │ ├── language.xml │ ├── LICENSE_AFL.txt │ ├── LICENSE.txt │ └── registration.php ├── pt_BR │ ├── composer.json │ ├── language.xml │ ├── LICENSE_AFL.txt │ ├── LICENSE.txt │ └── registration.php
The only required directory for a language package is the top-level directory. Although not required, we recommend that the directory name match the ISO code to identify the locale.
For more information about language packages, see Translation dictionaries and language packages.