Configure the Magento application
Now that you’ve finished installing the Magento application, you need to configure it. This topic provides some recommended configuration settings for Magento; the list is not complete so watch this space.
Set up cron
cron—the UNIX task scheduler—is critical to Magento’s day-to-day operations. It schedules things like reindexing, newsletters, e-mails, sitemaps, and so on. A crontab is a cron configuration.
Create the Magento crontab
Starting with version 2.2, Magento creates a crontab for you. We add the Magento crontab to any configured crontab for the Magento file system owner. In other words, if you already set up crontabs for other extensions or applications, we add the Magento crontab to it.
The Magento crontab is inside
#~ MAGENTO START and
#~ MAGENTO END comments in your crontab.
To create the Magento crontab:
- Log in as, or switch to, the Magento file system owner.
- Change to your Magento installation directory.
Enter the following command:
php bin/magento cron:install [--force]
--force to rewrite an existing Magento crontab.
magento cron:installdoes not rewrite an existing crontab inside
#~ MAGENTO STARTand
#~ MAGENTO ENDcomments in your crontab.
magento cron:install --forcehas no effect on any cron jobs outside the Magento comments.
To view the crontab, enter the following command as the Magento file system owner:
A sample follows:
#~ MAGENTO START * * * * * /usr/bin/php /var/www/html/magento2/bin/magento cron:run | grep -v Ran jobs by schedule >> /var/www/html/magento2/var/log/magento.cron.log * * * * * /usr/bin/php /var/www/html/magento2/update/cron.php >> /var/www/html/magento2/var/log/update.cron.log * * * * * /usr/bin/php /var/www/html/magento2/bin/magento setup:cron:run >> /var/www/html/magento2/var/log/setup.cron.log #~ MAGENTO END
For more information about cron, including how to remove a crontab and run cron from the command line, see Configure and run cron.
Security settings and recommendations
After installation, we recommend the following:
- Make sure your file ownership and permissions are set properly
- We strongly recommend changing the default Admin URL from
adminto something else
- Make sure the
X-Frame-OptionHTTP header is set properly.
- Take precautions against cross-site scripting (XSS) by securing your templates
If you installed by cloning the Magento repository, make sure that when you deploy Magento, you only include files and folders that are required for the production environment. Files and folders that are not required can potentially expose security risks.
Enable Apache server rewrites
If you use the Apache web server, you must enable server rewrites for pages to display properly. Otherwise, you’ll see pages without styles and other issues.
Caching in a multi-webnode environment
If you have multiple webnodes, you cannot use Magento’s default file caching because there is no synchronization between webnodes. In other words, activity on one webnode is written to that webnode’s file system only. Subsequent activity, if performed on another webnode, can result in unnecessary files being written or can result in errors.
Instead, use Redis for both the default cache and the page cache.
This section briefly discusses settings we recommend you consider for the server on which Magento runs. Some of these settings are not directly related to Magento; these are provided as suggestions only.
logrotate utility enables you to administer systems that generate large numbers of log files. It allows automatic rotation, compression, removal, and mailing of log files. Each log file can be handled daily, weekly, monthly, or when the log file exceeds a specified size.
For more information, see one of the following:
Set up iptables rules to enable various Magento services to communicate.
Whether you have one server or many, you must open ports in the firewall to enable Magento services to communicate. For example, if you use the Solr search engine with Magento Commerce, you must enable it to communicate with the web server. If you have multiple web nodes, you must enable them to communicate with each other.
Security Enhanced Linux (SELinux) rules
We don’t recommend whether or not you use SELinux at all; however, if you use it, you must configure Magento services to communicate with each other similar to configuring iptables.
Set up an e-mail server
Magento requires an e-mail server. We don’t recommend a particular server but you can try any of the following:
- Postfix for CentOS (digitalocean tutorial, CentOS documentation)
- Postfix for Ubuntu (digitalocean tutorial, Ubuntu documentation)
Set up an Elasticsearch as search engine for enhanced performance:
Elasticsearch available in Magento Commerce since 2.1.0 and in Magento Open Source since 2.3.0:
Set up an message queue
Since 2.3.0 Magento Open Source includes message queue functionality. In earlier versions it is available only for Magento Commerce.
Settings for Magento Commerce only
You can configure the following only if you use Magento Commerce: